• The Application Wizard serves to generate an initial source tree for the development, including make files, While this could be done manually, it can definitely save time during the start-up phase of a project in web application development.
• The Extensible Markup Language Compiler XMLC is the tool that allows the clean separation of the user interface and the application logic. It is used to compile an HTML page into a Java class containing the whole page as a hierarchy following the W3C’s Document Object Model (DOM). The obtained Java class can then be programmatically modified by replacing nodes or attributes with dynamic content.
This method has the following advantage: A designer can independently create a Web page with design tool of choice. Then, the programmer compiles the HTML page and accesses the desired contents via attribute. • The Data Objects Design Studio is a tool to model the data tables of an application with a graphical user interface. It is capable of generating both SQL scripts and Java code.
• The Kelp tools are a set of utility programs that allow the configuration of Enhydra projects to work within IDE’s such as Borland’s JBuilder or Oracle’s JDeveloper.
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The Servlet Architecture When a Web server receives a client request for static web pages (usually files with an extension .htm or .html), it looks for the requested page, and simply responds to the client with the contents. However, when dynamic content is requested, the behavior of the server needs to be different.
In this case, a program has to be run on the server machine that interprets the parameters of the request and generates the content accordingly. To enable the server to distinguish between regular requests for static pages and requests for dynamic content, the server needs to be made aware of which requests should map to a program.
This is usually done through a server plug-in. This plug-in is a small interface that tells the server which requests are dynamic (e.g. all pages that end with .cgi or .jsp), and what program to forward these requests to. A popular way of generating dynamic content in the past was the Common Gateway Interface (CGI). The CGI environment instantiates a new child process on the server to handle each request, i.e. runs a program that generates the output dynamically.
This method, however, is very resource intensive. Creating a the new runtime environment, initializing it and destroying it after use are overhead tasks that can weigh heavily when a Web server receives thousands of requests per day. A large number of simultaneous requests could even cause the server to crash due to memory restrictions. Servlets offer a much lighter weight approach to handling many client requests.
Although the servlet interface definition is based on CGI, it processes requests differently. A single program running on the server, a so-called Servlet Engine or Servlet Container, handles all requests. Instead of creating a new process for each request, the Servlet Engine uses Java’s multithreading capabilities to generate the dynamic page within the Servlet Engine’s main process.
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The Apache Web Server Apache is by far the most popular Web server today, with a market share of about 60% according to the Netcraft Web server survey. Apache is maintained by the Apache Software Foundation .
Brian Behlendorf and Cliff Skolnick initiated the Apache project in 1995 out of the need for rapid development of new Web server features. The first version of Apache was based on the NCSA HTTPd Web server, and modified through patches (therefore the name: Apache = “a patchy” server).
The original code base was eventually replaced in the next revision. An important year for Apache was 1998 when an agreement with IBM for the continued development of Apache was reached. IBM now includes the Apache code in its WebSphere server product. Today, many voluntary contributions from companies and individuals guarantee for the ongoing success of the Apache Web server. The following is a list of Apache features for the current version 2.0:
• Serves static and dynamic CGI Web pages. Can interface with many dynamic content generation technologies such as Perl, Java Servlets, or PHP.
• Highly configurable. Apache is composed of many modules that can be optionally added or removed, as well as configured.
• Extensive security features. Several forms of authentication, including SSL encryption are available.
• Portable (implementations are available for many platforms, including Windows, Unix, Linux, and OS/2). Apache is available for download, but also ships with most Linux distributions.
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To both the consumers and business, connectivity plays an important part as it is the key factor determining the whole business. From the business point of view, Ecommerce provides better connectivity for its potential customer as their respective website can be accessed virtually from anywhere through Internet. This way, more potential customers can get in touch with the company's business and thus, eliminating the limits of geographical location.From the customer standpoint, Ecommerce is much more convenient as they can browse through a whole directories of catalogues without any hassle, compare prices between products, buying from another country and on top of that, they can do it while at home or at work, without any necessity to move a single inch from their chair. Besides that, for both consumers and business, Ecommerce proves to be more convenient as online trading has less red tape compared to traditional commerce method. In global market sense, the appearance of Ecommerce as a pioneer has opened up various windows of opportunities for a variety of other companies and investors. For instance, due to the booming of Ecommerce, more and more resources are being directed into electronic securities, internet facilities, business plans and new technologies. In result of this phenomenon, a variety of new markets have emerged from Ecommerce itself giving a boost to the global market. In short, if without any major obstacles, Ecommerce will certainly continue to mature in the global market and eventually, it will become an essential business plan for a company in order to survive and stay competitive in the ever changing market. Kepran is an e-commerce development company providing ecommerce development solutions ,expertise in ecommerce development with bunch of ecommerce development professionls in ecommerce development Bangalore
Business-to-business (B2B) e-commerce is widely believed to promise a radical change in the way that firms trade with one another. B2B e-commerce applications are being promoted as tools that will enable producer firms in developing countries to reduce their costs substantially, thereby easing their access to global markets. The vision of B2B e-commerce is driven by a simple idea. The Internet provides an open global network and access to this network is relatively cheap. Internet-based B2B e-commerce should help producers in developing countries obtain better information on global markets and give them direct access to new customers in
2. The key question is: does the implementation of Internet-based B2B e-commerce actually lead to new trading opportunities for producer firms in developing countries? Some of the hype has gone out of the Internet debate, but policy makers and development assistance organisations continue to have a very optimistic view about the potential of the Internet and information and communication technologies (ICTs), more generally. They are concentrating on removing the obstacles that hold back the use of ICTs by developing country firms. Helping these firms to bridge the ‘digital divide’ and take advantage of ‘digital opportunities’ is a very high priority. 3. This project examines the expectations and assumptions behind this drive to invest in ICTs and B2B e-commerce, in particular. We arrive at an alternative set of conclusions about the appropriate priorities for policy and action. These come from investigating what actually happens on the Internet and from talking to producers and other stakeholders in developing countries who are involved in international trade and in some types of B2B e-commerce. 4. Our overall finding is that the main effect of B2B e-commerce is to enhance the relationships between existing trading partners. Its use does little to help forge ongoing relationships with new firms. There is a clear message for policy makers and practitioners – understanding how international trade is organised and how inter-firm relationships are developed is essential if the use of some types of B2B e-commerce is to assist producer firms in gaining more equitable access to international markets. 5. In spite of the optimism about the potential benefits of B2B e-commerce for developing country firms, there is remarkably little evidence about the way that it is actually used by producers in developing.
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Several server-side technologies exist today,the first solution to bringing dynamic data to the Web was CGI, the Common Gateway Interface. CGI provided a simple way to create a Web application that accepts user input, queries a database, and returns responses to the client. Then, both Microsoft and Netscape developed proprietary, server-specific API’s to answer inefficiencies of CGI (especially its poor scalability). However, these API’s were limited to a particular platform in web application development.
Furthermore, these API’s reduced the stability of the server due to the fact that their programs had to run within the same process as the Web server. The next step in the continuing development of server-side technologies was Microsoft’s Active Server Pages (ASP), and Sun’s Java Servlets and Java Server Pages (JSP). Implementations for JSP and Servlets are available on many platforms, and they provide a good way of separating code and HTML to increase maintainability.
JSP and Servlets have become today’s most popular way of serverside programming for enterprise applications, while ASP dominates among smaller sites. An effort to improve Microsoft’s position in the server-side application development market was made with the introduction of the .NET platform in 2000. The goal of .NET was to regain some of the market that was lost to Sun Microsystems due to the superior concept of Servlets/JSP over ASP. Sun, on the other hand, recently announced Sun ONE to compete with the .NET strategy, showing that server-side programming is still evolving and improving at a rapid pace. Since the server-side application development market is still evolving, developers are confronted with the difficulty of having to work with constantly changing techniques, and having to make the right choice of which development platform to use.
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Why are there college courses and textbooks on e-commerce when there are no courses or textbooks on “TV Commerce,” “Radio Commerce,” “Direct Mail Commerce,” “Railroad Commerce,” or “Highway Commerce,” even though these E-commerce: The Revolution Is Just Beginning 11 E-commerce primarily involves transactions that cross firm boundaries. E-business primarily involves the application of digital technologies to business processes within the firm.The difference between ecommerce and e-business the digital enablement of transactions and processes within a firm, involving information systems under the control of the firm 12 The Revolution Is Just Beginning technologies had profound impacts on commerce in the twentieth century and account for far more commerce than e-commerce? The reason, as you shall see, is that e-commerce technology is different and more powerful than any of the other technologies we have seen in the past century. While these other technologies transformed economic life in the twentieth century, the evolving Internet and other information technologies will shape the twenty-first century. Prior to the development of e-commerce, the process of marketing and selling goods was a mass-marketing and sales force-driven process. Consumers were viewed as passive targets of advertising “campaigns” and branding blitzes intended to influence their long-term product perceptions and immediate purchasing behavior. Selling was conducted in well-insulated “channels.” Consumers were considered to be trapped by geographical and social boundaries, unable to search widely for the best price and quality. Information about prices, costs, and fees could be hidden from the consumer, creating profitable “information asymmetries” for the selling firm. Information asymmetry refers to any disparity in relevant market information among parties in a transaction. It was so expensive to change national or regional prices in traditional retailing (what are called menu costs) that “one national price” was the norm, and dynamic pricing to the marketplace— changing prices in real time—was unheard of. Kepran is an ecommerce development company providing ecommerce development Bangalore expertise in ecommerce development solutions Bangalore.
Linus Torvalds created the Linux operating system as a personal project in 1991 (in Finland), out of the desire to learn and understand the 386 processor and Unix-based operating systems. It was released free-of-charge to the public for everyone to make improvements under the terms of the GNU General Public License.Since then, Linux has grown into a major player in the operating system market, thanks to the contribution of hundreds of developers all over the world and the coordinating efforts of Linus Torvalds. It has been ported to run on a variety of architectures including Compaq's Alpha, Sun's SPARC, and Motorola's PowerPC chips. The term “Linux” technically only refers to the kernel (the core of the operating system). 12 An important reason why Linux has become so popular today is the ease of availability through the so-called “distributions”. Distributions bundle the Linux operating system together with useful applications developed by independent groups, and usually have an installation program. Many companies offer Linux distributions today; a list of major distributions is given in the next section. With the combined efforts of companies as well as individuals, Linux has evolved into a modern operating system that incorporates protected memory, multitasking, fast TCP/IP networking, shared libraries and multi-user capabilities. Kepran is an web application development company providing web application development services expertise in web application development located in web app development Bangalore in web application development India
In 1994, e-commerce as we now know it did not exist. In 2005, just ten years later, around 110 million American consumers are expected to spend about $142–$172 billion purchasing products and services on the Internet’s World Wide Web (eMarketer, Inc., 2005b; Shop.org and Forrester Research, 2005; Rainie, 2005). Although the terms Internet and World Wide Web are often used interchangeably, they are actually two very different things.The Internet is a worldwide network of computer networks, and the World Wide Web is one of the Internet’s most popular services, providing access to over 8 billion Web pages. We describe both more fully later in this section and in Chapter 3. In 2005, businesses are expected to spend over $1.5 trillion purchasing goods and services from other businesses on the Web (U.S. Department of Commerce, 2005). From a standing start in 1995, this type of commerce, called electronic commerce or e-commerce, has experienced growth rates of well over 100% a year; although the rate has slowed and is now growing at about 25% a year. These developments have created the first widespread digital electronic marketplaces. Even more impressive than its spectacular initial growth is its future predicted growth. By 2008, analysts estimate that consumers will be spending around $232 billion and businesses about $3 trillion in online transactions (eMarketer, Inc., 2005a; 2003; U.S. Department of Commerce, 2005) Kepran is an ecommerce development company providing ecommerce development solutions in ecommerce development Bangalore expertise in ecommerce development in ecommerce development India
Online consumer sales expanded by more than 23% in 2005 to an estimated $142–$172 billion (eMarketer, Inc., 2005a; Shop.org and Forrester Research, 2005). • The number of individuals online in the United States increased to 175 million in 2005, up from 170 million in 2004 (The total population of the United States is about 300 million.) (eMarketer, Inc., 2005b; U.S. Census Bureau, 2005). • Of the total 112 million households in the United States, the number online increased to 71 million or 63% of all households (U.S. Census Bureau, 2005; eMarketer, Inc., 2005b; Pew Research Center, 2005).• On an average day, 70 million people go online. Around 140 million send e-mail, 8 million have created a blog, 4 million share music on peer-to-peer networks, and 3 million use the Internet to rate a person, product, or service (Pew Research Center, 2005; Pew Internet & American Life Project, 2004). • The number of people who have purchased something online expanded to about 110 million, with additional millions shopping (gathering information) but not purchasing (Pew Research Center, 2005). • The demographic profile of new online shoppers broadened to become more like ordinary American shoppers (Pew Research Center, 2005; Fallows, 2004). • B2B e-commerce—use of the Internet for business-to-business commerce— expanded about 30% in 2005 to more than $1.5 trillion (U.S. Department of Commerce, 2005). • The Internet technology base gained greater depth and power, as more than 42 million households had broadband cable or DSL access to the Internet in 2005—about 38% of all households (eMarketer, Inc., 2005c) Kepran is an ecommerce development company providing ecommerce solutions expertise in ecommerce development located in e commerce development Bangalore