Viewing posts categorised under: Web application development

The importance of Enhydra tools

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• The Application Wizard serves to generate an initial source tree for the development, including make files, While this could be done manually, it can definitely save time during the start-up phase of a project in web application development.

• The Extensible Markup Language Compiler XMLC is the tool that allows the clean separation of the user interface and the application logic. It is used to compile an HTML page into a Java class containing the whole page as a hierarchy following the W3C’s Document Object Model (DOM). The obtained Java class can then be programmatically modified by replacing nodes or attributes with dynamic content.

This method has the following advantage: A designer can independently create a Web page with design tool of choice. Then, the programmer compiles the HTML page and accesses the desired contents via attribute. • The Data Objects Design Studio is a tool to model the data tables of an application with a graphical user interface. It is capable of generating both SQL scripts and Java code.

• The Kelp tools are a set of utility programs that allow the configuration of Enhydra projects to work within IDE’s such as Borland’s JBuilder or Oracle’s JDeveloper.

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Servlet and its Importance

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The Servlet Architecture When a Web server receives a client request for static web pages (usually files with an extension .htm or .html), it looks for the requested page, and simply responds to the client with the contents. However, when dynamic content is requested, the behavior of the server needs to be different.

In this case, a program has to be run on the server machine that interprets the parameters of the request and generates the content accordingly. To enable the server to distinguish between regular requests for static pages and requests for dynamic content, the server needs to be made aware of which requests should map to a program.

This is usually done through a server plug-in. This plug-in is a small interface that tells the server which requests are dynamic (e.g. all pages that end with .cgi or .jsp), and what program to forward these requests to. A popular way of generating dynamic content in the past was the Common Gateway Interface (CGI). The CGI environment instantiates a new child process on the server to handle each request, i.e. runs a program that generates the output dynamically.

This method, however, is very resource intensive. Creating a the new runtime environment, initializing it and destroying it after use are overhead tasks that can weigh heavily when a Web server receives thousands of requests per day. A large number of simultaneous requests could even cause the server to crash due to memory restrictions. Servlets offer a much lighter weight approach to handling many client requests.

Although the servlet interface definition is based on CGI, it processes requests differently. A single program running on the server, a so-called Servlet Engine or Servlet Container, handles all requests. Instead of creating a new process for each request, the Servlet Engine uses Java’s multithreading capabilities to generate the dynamic page within the Servlet Engine’s main process.

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Importance of Apache

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The Apache Web Server Apache is by far the most popular Web server today, with a market share of about 60% according to the Netcraft Web server survey. Apache is maintained by the Apache Software Foundation .

Brian Behlendorf and Cliff Skolnick initiated the Apache project in 1995 out of the need for rapid development of new Web server features. The first version of Apache was based on the NCSA HTTPd Web server, and modified through patches (therefore the name: Apache = “a patchy” server).

The original code base was eventually replaced in the next revision. An important year for Apache was 1998 when an agreement with IBM for the continued development of Apache was reached. IBM now includes the Apache code in its WebSphere server product. Today, many voluntary contributions from companies and individuals guarantee for the ongoing success of the Apache Web server. The following is a list of Apache features for the current version 2.0:

• Serves static and dynamic CGI Web pages. Can interface with many dynamic content generation technologies such as Perl, Java Servlets, or PHP.

• Highly configurable. Apache is composed of many modules that can be optionally added or removed, as well as configured.

• Extensive security features. Several forms of authentication, including SSL encryption are available.

• Portable (implementations are available for many platforms, including Windows, Unix, Linux, and OS/2). Apache is available for download, but also ships with most Linux distributions.

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The Need of Web Application

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Several server-side technologies exist today,the first solution to bringing dynamic data to the Web was CGI, the Common Gateway Interface. CGI provided a simple way to create a Web application that accepts user input, queries a database, and returns responses to the client. Then, both Microsoft and Netscape developed proprietary, server-specific API’s to answer inefficiencies of CGI (especially its poor scalability). However, these API’s were limited to a particular platform in web application development.

Furthermore, these API’s reduced the stability of the server due to the fact that their programs had to run within the same process as the Web server. The next step in the continuing development of server-side technologies was Microsoft’s Active Server Pages (ASP), and Sun’s Java Servlets and Java Server Pages (JSP). Implementations for JSP and Servlets are available on many platforms, and they provide a good way of separating code and HTML to increase maintainability.

JSP and Servlets have become today’s most popular way of serverside programming for enterprise applications, while ASP dominates among smaller sites. An effort to improve Microsoft’s position in the server-side application development market was made with the introduction of the .NET platform in 2000. The goal of .NET was to regain some of the market that was lost to Sun Microsystems due to the superior concept of Servlets/JSP over ASP. Sun, on the other hand, recently announced Sun ONE to compete with the .NET strategy, showing that server-side programming is still evolving and improving at a rapid pace. Since the server-side application development market is still evolving, developers are confronted with the difficulty of having to work with constantly changing techniques, and having to make the right choice of which development platform to use.

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Importance of Linux

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Linus Torvalds created the Linux operating system as a personal project in 1991 (in Finland), out of the desire to learn and understand the 386 processor and Unix-based operating systems. It was released free-of-charge to the public for everyone to make improvements under the terms of the GNU General Public License.

Since then, Linux has grown into a major player in the operating system market, thanks to the contribution of hundreds of developers all over the world and the coordinating efforts of Linus Torvalds. It has been ported to run on a variety of architectures including Compaq's Alpha, Sun's SPARC, and Motorola's PowerPC chips. The term “Linux” technically only refers to the kernel (the core of the operating system). 12 An important reason why Linux has become so popular today is the ease of availability through the so-called “distributions”. Distributions bundle the Linux operating system together with useful applications developed by independent groups, and usually have an installation program. Many companies offer Linux distributions today; a list of major distributions is given in the next section. With the combined efforts of companies as well as individuals, Linux has evolved into a modern operating system that incorporates protected memory, multitasking, fast TCP/IP networking, shared libraries and multi-user capabilities. Kepran is an web application development company providing web application development services expertise in web application development located in web app development Bangalore in web application development India

The Use of Apache Web Server

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The Apache Web Server Apache is by far the most popular Web server today, with a market share of about 60% according to the Netcraft Web server survey .Apache is maintained by the Apache Software Foundation . Brian Behlendorf and Cliff Skolnick initiated the Apache project in 1995 out of the need for rapid development of new Web  development  features.

The first version of Apache was based on the NCSA HTTPd Web server, and modified through patches (therefore the name: Apache = “a patchy” server). The original code base was eventually replaced in the next revision. An important year for Apache was 1998 when an agreement with IBM for the continued development of Apache was reached. IBM now includes the Apache code in its WebSphere server product. Today, many voluntary contributions from companies and individuals guarantee for the ongoing success of the Apache Web server. The following is a list of Apache features for the current version 2.0: • Serves static and dynamic CGI Web pages. Can interface with many dynamic content generation technologies such as Perl, Java Servlets, or PHP. • Highly configurable. Apache is composed of many modules that can be optionally added or removed, as well as configured. • Extensive security features. Several forms of authentication, including SSL encryption are available. • Portable (implementations are available for many platforms, including Windows, Unix, Linux, and OS/2). Apache is available for download, but also ships with most Linux distributions. Kepran is an web application development company providing web application development services expertise in web application development solution in web application development India in web application development Bangalore .

The Use of Linus in web application

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The Use of Linus in web application Linus Torvalds created the Linux operating system as a personal project in 1991 (in Finland), out of the desire to learn and understand the 386 processor and Unix-based operating systems. It was released free-of-charge to the public for everyone to make improvements under the terms of the GNU General Public License. Since then, Linux has grown into a major player in the operating system market, thanks to the contribution of hundreds of developers all over the world and the coordinating efforts of Linus Torvalds. It has been ported to run on a variety of architectures including Compaq's Alpha, Sun's SPARC, and Motorola's PowerPC chips.

The term “Linux” technically only refers to the kernel (the core of the operating system). 12 An important reason why Linux has become so popular today is the ease of availability through the so-called “distributions”. Distributions bundle the Linux operating system together with useful applications developed by independent groups, and usually have an installation program. Many companies offer Linux distributions today; a list of major distributions is given in the next section. With the combined efforts of companies as well as individuals, Linux has evolved into a modern operating system that incorporates protected memory, multitasking, fast TCP/IP networking, shared libraries and multi-user capabilities in web application development. Kepran is a web application development company providing web application development solutions expertise in web application development with professionals web app developers in web application development Bangalore located in web application development India

Open Source in Web application development

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Before diving into the different Open Source technologies, it is helpful to look at where Open Source came from, and the motivation behind it. When developing applications, it is important to understand both the rights and obligations that come with using Open Source software, since this can affect the newly developed product itself.

While Open Source in web app development implies that the source code is available and modifiable, the use of the program is free, and copies may be made, it often also means that the same rules have to apply to the program that utilizes Open Source, depending on the type of license that the Open Source software is provided under. It is also worth mentioning that free software, freeware, public domain, and Open Source don’t mean the same thing, although all of these products can be obtained free of charge. Recommend references are given below for readers interested in a more detailed discussion of these topics.

The term “Free Software” is based on the idea of making software accessible to anyone for free, including the right for everyone to make improvements to it. This implies that the source code is provided with the software product. To protect the rights of the authors, a formal approach through licenses has been introduced through Richard Stallman, a former member of the MIT Artificial Intelligence Lab, with the founding of the Free Software Foundation (FSF) in 1984. Stallman’s goal was to develop a UNIX-compatible operating system called GNU (= GNU’s not UNIX) which should give users a portable, no-cost alternative to the various UNIX systems that were specific to each hardware vendor. He planned to achieve this by gradually replacing the proprietary versions of the UNIX system software components with his and other voluntary 11 contributor’s developments.

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Introduction Web Technologies

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Particularly the Internet, have become an important part of the business world over the past few years. People have become accustomed to searching the Internet for data, sending e-mails, or making simple purchases electronically. Web browsers, such as Microsoft’s Internet Explorer, or Netscape’s Navigator, played an important part in the rapid webdevelopment of the Internet.

Designed to present a simple and easy-to-operate front-end interface to the user, Web browsers are today’s standard way of accessing the vast amount of information available through the Internet. More recently, with more and more people being connected and the steadily increasing connection speed to the Internet, a new wave of more sophisticated web applications emerged. In order to make these applications possible, the browser’s original functionality of “browsing”, i.e. navigating through the contents of web sites via hyperlinks, needed to be extended significantly. Scripting languages, such as VBScript or JavaScript, Java-enabled browsers, DHTML, or XML are some of the technologies that are part of today’s browsers to provide the means for the development of real-world applications such as on-line bookstores, on-line travel agencies, or banking services, which are some of the most well-known examples for modern Web usage.

 The technologies mentioned above served to enhance the mostly “static” contents (e.g. text or images) of Web pages with “dynamic” elements, such as event handling for error checking of forms prior to submittal, or performing of calculations. But not only browsers needed to be improved. More importantly, Web servers needed to be able to respond to client requests in a more flexible way than presenting the same content to all users. Server-side programming is the key technology that allows developers to make Web applications fit for a specific purpose, so incoming requests can be processed by the server on the fly (e.g. presenting filtered information of a database according to search criteria provided by the client). Server-side programming is today’s way of choice to develop Web applications. A Web server can be completely controlled by the application provider, eliminating uncertainties regarding the capabilities of the client’s Web browser. With server-side programming, Web pages are prepared by the application considering the client’s request. This preparation happens on the server, so that the information submitted to the client can be in HTML format, the Internet’s basic, standardized language of communication.

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Brief introductions of servlets

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When a Web server receives a client request for static web pages (usually files with an extension .htm or .html), it looks for the requested page, and simply responds to the client with the contents. However, when dynamic content is requested, the behavior of the server needs to be different: In this case, a program has to be run on the server machine that interprets the parameters of the request and generates the content accordingly in web application development To enable the server to distinguish between regular requests for static pages and requests for dynamic content, the server needs to be made aware of which requests should map to a program. This is usually done through a server plug-in. This plug-in is a small interface that tells the server which requests are dynamic (e.g. all pages that end with .cgi or .jsp), and what program to forward these requests to. A popular way of generating dynamic content in the past was the Common Gateway Interface (CGI). The CGI environment instantiates a new child process on the server to handle each request i.e. runs a program that generates the output dynamically.

This method, however, is very resource intensive. Creating a the new runtime environment, initializing it and destroying it after use are overhead tasks that can weigh heavily when a Web server receives thousands of requests per day. A large number of simultaneous requests could even cause the server to crash due to memory restrictions. Servlets offer a much lighter weight approach to handling many client requests. Although the servlet interface definition is based on CGI, it processes requests differently. A single program running on the server, a so-called Servlet Engine or Servlet Container handles all requests. Instead of creating a new process for each request, the Servlet Engine uses Java’s multithreading capabilities to generate the dynamic page within the Servlet Engine’s main process. Kepran is an web application development company providing web application development services in web application development Bangalore expertise in web application development India expertise in web application development solutions.